# Math & Trigonometry Functions

- ABS
Returns the absolute value of a number.

ABS(-2)Try this examplevalue (number)The number of which to return the absolute value. - ACOS
The ACOS function returns the inverse cosine of a value in radians.

ACOS(1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse cosine. Must be between -1 and 1, inclusive. - ACOSH
The ACOSH function returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.

ACOSH(2)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse hyperbolic cosine. Must be greater than or equal to 1. - ACOT
The ACOT function returns the inverse cotangent of a value in radians.

ACOT(-1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse cotangent. Values must be a number. - ACOTH
The ACOTH function returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a value in radians.

ACOTH(10)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse hyperbolic cotangent. - ADD
Add numbers

ADD(2,2)Try this examplevalue1 (number)Summand 1value2 (number)Summand 2 - ARABIC
Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number

ARABIC("VII")Try this exampleroman_text (string)The Roman numeral in text that you want to convert. - ASIN
The ASIN function returns the inverse sine of a value in radians.

ASIN(1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse sine. Must be between -1 and 1, inclusive. - ASINH
The ASINH function returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.

ASINH(0.9)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse hyperbolic sine. - ATAN
The ATAN function returns the inverse tangent of a value in radians.

ATAN(0)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse tangent. - ATAN2
The ATAN2 function returns the angle between the x-axis and a line segment from the origin (0,0) to the specified coordinate pair (`x`,`y`), in radians.

ATAN2(4,3)Try this examplex (number)The x coordinate of the endpoint of the line segment for which to calculate the angle from the x-axis.y (number)The y coordinate of the endpoint of the line segment for which to calculate the angle from the x-axis. - ATANH
The ATANH function returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.

ATANH(0.9)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the inverse hyperbolic tangent. Must be between -1 and 1, exclusive. - BESSELI
Calculates the modified Bessel functions

BESSELI(4.5,1)Try this examplex (number)The value at which the function is to be evaluated.n (number)A positive integer, representing the order of the function. - BESSELJ
Returns the Bessel function

BESSELJ(2.5,1)Try this examplex (number)The value at which the function is to be evaluated.n (number)The order of the Bessel function (must be a positive integer). - BESSELK
Calculates the modified Bessel functions. Kn(x), which are also known as the hyperbolic Bessel Functions

BESSELK(0.05,1)Try this examplex (number)The value at which the function is to be evaluated.n (number)A positive integer, denoting the order of the modified Bessel function. - BESSELY
Returns the Bessel function, Yn(x), (also known as the Weber function or the Neumann function), for a specified order and value of x.

BESSELY(0.05,1)Try this examplex (number)The value at which the function is to be evaluated.n (number)A positive integer, denoting the order of the Bessel function. - CEIL
Round fractions up

CEIL(4.3)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round - CEILING
The CEILING function rounds a number up to the nearest integer multiple of specified significance.

CEILING(23.25,0.1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round up to the nearest integer multiple of factor.factor (number)Optional: The number to whose multiples value will be rounded - may not be equal to 0. - CEILING_MATH
Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

CEILING_MATH(6.3)Try this examplenumber (number)The number that should be rounded. - CEILING_PRECISE
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.

CEILING_PRECISE(-6.3)Try this examplenumber (number)The number that should be rounded. - COMBIN
The COMBIN function returns the number of ways to choose some number of objects from a pool of a given size of objects.

COMBIN(4,2)Try this examplen (number)The size of the pool of objects to choose from.k (number)The number of objects to choose. - COS
The COS function returns the cosine of an angle provided in radians.

COS(1)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to find the cosine of, in radians. - COSH
The COSH function returns the hyperbolic cosine of any real number.

COSH(1)Try this examplevalue (number)Any real value to calculate the hyperbolic cosine of. - COT
The COT function returns the cotangent of an angle provided in radians.

COT(3.14)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to find the cotangent of, in radians. - COTH
The COTH function returns the hyperbolic cotangent of any real number.

COTH(1)Try this examplevalue (number)Any real value to calculate the hyperbolic cotangent of. - COUNTIFS
Returns the count of a range depending on multiple criteria.

COUNTIFS({var1}, ">20", {var2}, "<30")Try this examplecriteria_range1 (array)The range to check against criterion1.criterion1 (string)The pattern or test to apply to criteria_range1. - CSC
The CSC function returns the cosecant of an angle provided in radians.

CSC(1)Try this exampleangle (number)Any real value to calculate the cosecant of. - CSCH
The CSCH function returns the hyperbolic cosecant of any real number.

CSCH(1)Try this examplevalue (number)Any real value to calculate the hyperbolic cosecant of. - DEG2RAD
Converts the number in degrees to the radian equivalent

DEG2RAD(45)Try this examplenumber (number)Angular value in degrees - DEGREES
The DEGREES function converts an angle value in radians to degrees.

DEGREES(6)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to convert from radians to degrees. - DIVIDE
Divide number

DIVIDE(4,2)Try this exampledivisible (number)Divisibledivider (number)Divider - ERFC_PRECISE
Returns the complementary Gauss error function of a value.

ERFC_PRECISE(2)Try this examplez (number)The number for which to calculate the complementary Gauss error function. - EVEN
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer.

EVEN(-0.6)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round to the next greatest even number. - EXP
Returns Euler's number, e (~2.718) raised to a power.

EXP(2)Try this exampleexponent (number)The exponent to raise e to. - FACT
The FACT function returns the factorial of a number.

FACT(3)Try this examplevalue (number)The number or reference to a number whose factorial will be calculated and returned. - FACTDOUBLE
Returns the "double factorial" of a number.

FACTDOUBLE(6)Try this examplevalue (number)The number or reference to a number whose double factorial will be calculated and returned. - FLOOR
The FLOOR function rounds a number down to the nearest integer multiple of specified significance.

FLOOR(23.25,0.1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round down to the nearest integer multiple of factor.factor (number)Optional: The number to whose multiples value will be rounded. Factor may not be equal to 0. - FLOOR_MATH
Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

FLOOR_MATH(6.7)Try this examplenumber (number)The number that should be rounded. - FLOOR_PRECISE
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.

FLOOR_PRECISE(6.7)Try this examplenumber (number)The number that should be rounded. - FMOD
Returns the floating point remainder (modulo) of the division of the arguments

FMOD(5.7, 1.3)Try this examplex (number)The dividendy (number)The divisor - GCD
Returns the greatest common divisor of one or more integers.

GCD(24,96)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The first value or range whose factors to consider in a calculation to find the greatest common divisor.value2 (number)Optional: Additional values or ranges whose factors to consider to find the greatest common divisor. - GT
Returns `TRUE` if the first argument is strictly greater than the second, and `FALSE` otherwise. Equivalent to the `>` operator.

GT(2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The value to test as being greater than value2.value2 (number)The second value. - GTE
Returns `TRUE` if the first argument is greater than or equal to the second, and `FALSE` otherwise. Equivalent to the `>=` operator.

GTE(2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The value to test as being greater than or equal to value2.value2 (number)The second value. - HYPOT
Calculate the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle

HYPOT(4,4)Try this examplex (number)Length of first sidey (number)Length of second side - IF_NUMBER_EQUAL
Determines whether the first number is equal with second

IF_NUMBER_EQUAL(3,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)First numbervalue2 (number)Second number - IF_NUMBER_GREATER
Determines whether the first number is greater than second

IF_NUMBER_GREATER(4,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)First numbervalue2 (number)Second number - INT
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer that is less than or equal to it.

INT(99.44)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round down to the nearest integer. - IS_FINITE
Finds whether a value is a legal finite number

IS_FINITE(1)Try this exampleval (number)The value to check - IS_INFINITE
Finds whether a value is infinite

IS_INFINITE(1)Try this exampleval (number)The value to check - IS_NAN
Finds whether a value is not a number

IS_NAN(ACOS(8))Try this exampleval (number)The value to check - LCM
Returns the least common multiple of one or more integers.

LCM(2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The first value or range whose factors to consider in a calculation to find the least common multiple.value2 (number)Optional: Additional values or ranges whose factors to consider to find the least common multiple. - LN
Returns the the logarithm of a number, base e (Euler's number).

LN(100)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the logarithm, base e. Value must be positive. - LOG
Returns the the logarithm of a number given a base.

LOG(128,2)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the logarithm given base. Value must be positive.base (number)The base to use for calculation of the logarithm. - LOG10
Returns the the logarithm of a number, base 10.

LOG10(100)Try this examplevalue (number)The value for which to calculate the logarithm, base 10. value must be positive. - LT
Returns `TRUE` if the first argument is strictly less than the second, and `FALSE` otherwise. Equivalent to the `<` operator.

LT(2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The value to test as being less than value2.value2 (number)The second value. - LTE
Returns `TRUE` if the first argument is less than or equal to the second, and `FALSE` otherwise. Equivalent to the `<=` operator.

LTE(2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The value to test as being less than or equal to value2.value2 (number)The second value. - MAKE_NEGATIVE
Transforms a number to a negative, even if it is negative

MAKE_NEGATIVE(123)Try this examplenumber (number)The number to transform - MAKE_POSITIVE
Transforms a number to a positive, even if it is positive

MAKE_POSITIVE(-123)Try this examplenumber (number)The number to transform - MDETERM
Returns the matrix determinant of a square matrix specified as an array or range.

MDETERM({var1})Try this examplesquare_matrix (array)An array or range with an equal number of rows and columns representing a matrix whose determinant will be calculated. - MINVERSE
Returns the multiplicative inverse of a square matrix specified as an array or range.

MINVERSE({var1})Try this examplesquare_matrix (array)An array or range with an equal number of rows and columns representing a matrix whose multiplicative inverse will be calculated. - MMULT
Calculates the matrix product of two matrices specified as arrays or ranges.

MMULT({var1},{var2})Try this examplematrix1 (array)The first matrix in the matrix multiplication operation, represented as an array or range.matrix2 (array)The second matrix in the matrix multiplication operation, represented as an array or range. - MOD
Returns the result of the modulo operator, the remainder after a division operation.

MOD(10,4)Try this exampledividend (number)The number to be divided to find the remainder.divisor (number)The number to divide by. - MROUND
Rounds one number to the nearest integer multiple of another.

MROUND(21,14)Try this examplevalue (number)The number to round to the nearest integer multiple of another.factor (number)The number to whose multiples value will be rounded. - MT_RAND
Generate a random value via the Mersenne Twister Random Number Generator

MT_RAND(5,15)Try this examplemin (number)Optional lowest value to be returned (default: 0)max (number)Optional highest value to be returned - MULTINOMIAL
Returns the factorial of the sum of values divided by the product of the values' factorials.

MULTINOMIAL(1,2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The first value or range to consider.value2 (number)Additional values or ranges to consider. - MULTIPLY
Multiply numbers

MULTIPLY(2,3)Try this examplevalue1 (number)Multiplicandsvalue2 (number)Multiplier - ODD
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer.

ODD(2)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round to the next greatest odd number. - PI
The PI function returns the value of pi to 9 decimal places.

PI()Try this example - POW
Exponential expression

POW(2,8)Try this examplebase (number)The base to useexp (number)The exponent - POWER
Returns a number raised to a power.

POWER(4,0.5)Try this examplebase (number)The number to raise to the exponent power. If base is negative, exponent must be an integer.exponent (number)The exponent to raise base to. - PRODUCT
Returns the result of multiplying a series of numbers together.

PRODUCT(1,2,3,4,5)Try this examplefactor1 (number)The first number or range to calculate for the product.factor2 (number)Additional values to multiply by. - QUOTIENT
Returns one number divided by another, without the remainder.

QUOTIENT(4,2)Try this exampledividend (number)The number to be divided.divisor (number)The number to divide by (cannot equal 0). - RAD2DEG
Converts the radian number to the equivalent number in degrees

RAD2DEG(1)Try this examplenumber (number)A radian value - RADIANS
The RADIANS function converts an angle value in degrees to radians.

RADIANS(180)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to convert from degrees to radians. - RAND
Returns a random number between 0 inclusive and 1 exclusive.

RAND()Try this example - RANDBETWEEN
Returns a uniformly random integer between two values, inclusive.

RANDBETWEEN(1,10)Try this examplelow (number)The low end of the random range.high (number)The high end of the random range. - ROMAN
Formats a number in Roman numerals.

ROMAN(499,0)Try this examplenumber (number)The number to format, between 1 and 3999, inclusive.rule_relaxation (number)Optional: 0 by default. The degree to which traditional syntax rules may be relaxed, between 0 and 4 inclusive. - ROUND
The ROUND function rounds a number to a certain number of decimal places according to standard rules.

ROUND(99.44,1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round to places number of places.places (number)Optional: The number of decimal places to which to round. - ROUNDDOWN
The ROUNDDOWN function rounds a number to a certain number of decimal places, always rounding down to the next valid increment.

ROUNDDOWN(99.44,1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round to places number of places, always rounding down.places (number)Optional: The number of decimal places to which to round. - ROUNDUP
Rounds a number to a certain number of decimal places, always rounding up to the next valid increment.

ROUNDUP(99.44,1)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to round to places number of places, always rounding up.places (number)Optional: The number of decimal places to which to round. - SEC
The SEC function returns the secant of an angle measured in radians.

SEC(3.14)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to find the secant of, measured in radians. - SECH
The SECH function returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle.

SECH(1)Try this examplevalue (number)Any real value to calculate the hyperbolic secant of. - SEQUENCE
Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4

SEQUENCE(10,5,0,3)Try this examplerows (number)Number of rows to return.columns (number)Optional: Number of columns to return. - SERIESSUM
Given parameters x, n, m, and a, returns the power series sum a1xn + a2x(n+m) + ... + aix(n+(i-1)m), where i is the number of entries in range `a`.

SERIESSUM(1,0,2,{var2})Try this examplex (number)The input to the power series. Varies depending on the type of approximation, may be angle, exponent, or some other value.n (number)The initial power to which to raise x in the power series. - SIGN
Given an input number, returns `-1` if it is negative, `1` if positive, and `0` if it is zero.

SIGN(-42)Try this examplevalue (number)The value whose sign will be evaluated. - SIN
The SIN function returns the sine of an angle provided in radians.

SIN(1)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to find the sine of, in radians. - SINH
The SINH function returns the hyperbolic sine of any real number.

SINH(1)Try this examplevalue (number)Any real value to calculate the hyperbolic sine of. - SQRT
Returns the positive square root of a positive number.

SQRT(9)Try this examplevalue (number)The number for which to calculate the positive square root. - SQRTPI
Returns the positive square root of the product of Pi and the given positive number.

SQRTPI(9)Try this examplevalue (number)The number which will be multiplied by Pi and have the product's square root returned - SUBSTRACT
Substract numbers

SUBSTRACT(10,2)Try this examplevalue1 (number)Minuendvalue2 (number)Subtrahend - SUBTOTAL
Returns a subtotal for a vertical range of variables using a specified aggregation function.

SUBTOTAL(1,{var1},{var2})Try this examplefunction_code (number)The function to use in subtotal aggregation. 1 - AVERAGE, 2 - COUNT, 3 - COUNTA, 4 - MAX, 5 - MIN, 6 - PRODUCT, 7 - STDEV, 8 - STDEVP, 9 - SUM, 10 - VAR, 11 - VARPrange1 (array)The first range over which to calculate a subtotal. - SUM
Returns the sum of a series of numbers and/or variables.

SUM(1,2,3,4,5)Try this examplevalue1 (mixed)The first number or range to add together.value2 (mixed)Optional - Additional numbers or ranges to add to value1. - SUMIF
Returns a conditional sum across a range.

SUMIF({var1},">20")Try this examplerange (array)The range which is tested against criterion.criterion (string)The pattern or test to apply to range. - SUMPRODUCT
The SUMPRODUCT function calculates the sum of the products of corresponding entries in 2 equally sized arrays or ranges.

SUMPRODUCT({var1},{var2})Try this examplearray1 (array)The first array or range whose entries will be multiplied with corresponding entries in the second such array or range.array2 (array)Optional - {1,1,1,...} with same length as array1 by default ] - The second array or range whose entries will be multiplied with corresponding entries in the first such array or range. - SUMSQ
Returns the sum of the squares of a series of numbers and/or variables.

SUMSQ(1,2,3,4,5)Try this examplevalue1 (number)The first number or range whose squares to add together.value2 (number)Optional: Additional numbers or ranges whose squares to add to the square(s) of value1. - SUMX2MY2
Calculates the sum of the differences of the squares of values in two arrays.

SUMX2MY2([1,2,3],[4,5,6])Try this examplearray_x (array)The array or range of values whose squares will be reduced by the squares of corresponding entries in array_y and added together.array_y (array)The array or range of values whose squares will be subtracted from the squares of corresponding entries in array_x and added together. - SUMX2PY2
Calculates the sum of the sums of the squares of values in two arrays.

SUMX2PY2([1,2,3],[4,5,6])Try this examplearray_x (array)The array or range of values whose squares will be added to the squares of corresponding entries in array_y and added together.array_y (array)The array or range of values whose squares will be added to the squares of corresponding entries in array_x and added together. - SUMXMY2
Calculates the sum of the squares of differences of values in two arrays.

SUMXMY2([1,2,3],[4,5,6])Try this examplearray_x (array)The array or range of values that will be reduced by corresponding entries in array_y, squared, and added together.array_y (array)The array or range of values that will be subtracted from corresponding entries in array_x, the result squared, and all such results added together. - TAN
The TAN function returns the tangent of an angle provided in radians.

TAN(1)Try this exampleangle (number)The angle to find the tangent of, in radians. - TANH
The TANH function returns the hyperbolic tangent of any real number.

TANH(1)Try this examplevalue (number)Any real value to calculate the hyperbolic tangent of. - TRUNC
Truncates a number to a certain number of significant digits by omitting less significant digits.

TRUNC(3.141592654,2)Try this examplevalue (number)The value to be truncated.places (number)Optional: The number of significant digits to the right of the decimal point to retain.